Please read carefully the information below:
This website uses both own and third-party cookies to provide visitors a much better browsing experience and services tailored to the needs and interests of everyone. In accordance with the EU’s e-privacy Directive, in force since 24 May 2012 and the provisions of Law no. 506 of 17 November 2004 on the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector, all visitors of the website are required to consent to the transmission of cookies on their computers.
What is a “cookie”?
An “Internet Cookie” (also known as “browser cookie”, “HTTP cookie” or simply “cookie”) is a small file of letters and figures that will be stored on the computer, other equipment of the user browsing the Internet. The cookie is installed through a web-server request from a browser (e.g., Internet Explorer, Chrome) and is completely “passive” (does not contain software, viruses or spyware, and cannot access the information on the user’s hard drive).
Purpose and use of cookie modules
- Customizing certain settings such as:
- the language in which a website is viewed
- the currency in which certain prices or tariffs are expressed
- keeping the options for different products (measures, other details, etc.) in the shopping cart (and storing these options) – generating the flexibility of the “shopping cart”
- accessing old preferences by clicking the “Next” and “Back” buttons.
- Cookies provide website owners with feedback on how their websites are used so they can make them more effective and accessible to users
- They allow multimedia or other applications from other websites to be included in a particular website to create a more valuable, useful and enjoyable browsing experience
- They improve the efficiency of online advertising
What are the cookies advantages?
A cookie contains information that links a web browser (user) and a specific web-server (website). If a browser accesses that web server again, it can read the already stored information and respond accordingly. Cookies provide users with a pleasant browsing experience and support the efforts of many websites to provide user-friendly services: for instance – online privacy preferences, site language options, shopping carts, or relevant advertising.
What is the lifetime of a cookie?
Cookies are managed by web servers. The lifetime of a cookie may vary significantly, depending on the purpose for which it is placed. Some cookies are used only for one session (session cookies) and are no longer retained once the user has left the website, while other cookies are retained and reused each time the user returns to that site (‘persistent cookies’). However, cookies can be deleted by a user at any time through browser settings.
How are cookies used by the website?
A visit to one website may place cookies for:
- increasing website performance
- visitors’ analysis
- user registration
Other cookies of third parties
On some pages, third parties can set their own anonymous cookies in order to track the success of an application or to customize an application. Due to its usage, the website cannot access these cookies, just as third parties cannot access the cookies owned by that website. For example, when the user distributes an article using the social network button on a website, that social network will record the user’s activity, not the website on which the button is located
What type of information is stored and accessed through cookies?
Cookies store information in a small text file that allows a website to recognize a browser. The web server will recognize the browser until the cookie expires or is deleted. The cookie stores important information that enhances your Internet browsing experience, for example:
- the language settings in which you want to access a site
- keeping a user logged in to the webmail account
- online banking security
- keeping products in the shopping cart.
Why are Cookies important for the Internet?
Cookies are the central focus of the Internet’s efficient operation, helping to generate a friendly browsing experience and tailored to the preferences and interests of each user. Denying or disabling cookies can make some websites unusable. Refusing or disabling cookies does not mean that the user will no longer receive online advertising – it only means that it will no longer be able to take into account the user’s preferences and interests, highlighted by the browsing behavior. Examples of important uses of cookies (which do not require authentication of a user through an account):
- content and services tailored to user’s preferences – news, weather, sports, maps, public and government services, fun websites and travel services
- offers adapted to the users’ interests – retaining passwords, language preferences (for instance displaying search results in English)
- remembering child protection filters for Internet content (family mode options, safe search functions)
- measurement, optimization, and analytics features – like confirming a certain level of traffic on a website, what kind of content is visualized and the way the user lands on a website (for example: searching engines, directly, from other websites etc.). Websites make these users analysis for making the websites better for their users.
Security and confidentiality issues
Cookies are NOT viruses! They use plain text formats. They are not made up of pieces of code, so they cannot be executed, or they cannot run automatically. Consequently, they cannot duplicate or replicate on other networks to run or replicate again. Because they cannot perform these functions, they cannot be considered viruses. Cookies can, however, be used for negative purposes. Because they store information about users’ preferences and browsing history on both a website and other websites, cookies can be used as a form of Spyware. Many anti-spyware products are aware of this and consistently mark cookies to be deleted in anti-virus / anti-spyware removal / scanning procedures. In general, browsers have built-in privacy settings that provide different levels of cookie acceptance, lifetime, and automatic deletion after the user has visited a particular site.
Other security issues related to cookies
Since identity protection is very valuable and is the right of every Internet user, it is advisable to know what issues can be created by cookies. Because their information is constantly transmitted in both directions between the browser and the website, if a hacker or unauthorized person interferes with the data transmission, the information contained in the cookie can be intercepted. Although very rarely this can happen if the browser connects to the server using an unencrypted network (for instance an unsecured Wi-Fi network). Other cookie-based attacks involve incorrect cookie settings on web servers. If a website does not require the browser to use only encrypted channels, hackers can use this vulnerability to mislead browsers to send information through unsecure channels. Hackers then use the information for unauthorized access to certain sites. It is very important for users to be careful in choosing the most appropriate method of protecting personal information.
Tips for safe and responsible cookie-based browsing
- customize your browser settings for cookies to reflect a comfortable security level of using cookies
- if you do not mind cookies and you are the only person using your computer, you can set expiration dates to store your browsing history and personal data
- if you share access to your computer, you can consider adjusting your browser to delete your individual browsing data each time you close your browser. This is a way to access websites that place cookies and delete any visiting information at the end of the browsing session
- install and constantly update your antispyware applications. Many of the applications for detecting and preventing spyware include detecting website attacks. This prevents the browser from accessing websites that could exploit browser vulnerabilities or download dangerous software
- make sure your browser is always up-to-date. Many of the cookie-based attacks are made by exploiting the weaknesses of the old browser versions
Cookies are everywhere and cannot be avoided if you want to enjoy access to the best and largest websites on the Internet – local or international. With a clear understanding of how they work and the benefits they bring, you can take the necessary security measures so you can safely browse the Internet.
What do you do if you do not want cookies to be installed on your computer?
There are people for whom the storage of information extracted from their computer or mobile device is relatively invasive, especially when the information in question is stored and used by third parties that are unknown to them. If you prefer, you can block all cookies or just some of them or even remove cookies that have been installed on your terminal. Be aware, however, that you may not be able to use certain features. To enable this blockage, you need to change your browser’s privacy settings. Some third-party operators have developed tools whose modules allow deactivation of data collection and use. Disabling and refusing to receive cookies can make some sites impracticable or difficult to visit and use. Also, refusing to accept cookies does not mean that the user will no longer receive / see online advertising. Browser settings can be made to prevent cookies from being accepted, or you can adjust your browser to accept cookies from a particular website. But, for example, if a user is not registered using cookies, he/she will not be able to leave comments. All modern browsers offer the ability to change cookies settings. These settings are usually found in the browser’s “Options”, “Settings” or “Preferences” menus.